Sobre Libia

DATOS PRINCIPALES

Datos Geograficos:

Límites: Libia limita al oeste con Túnez y Argelia, al sur con Níger y Chad, al este con Egipto y al sureste con Sudán.

Área: 1.759.540 km². (una superficie tres veces y media la de España).

Libia tiene una extensión de costa mediterránea de casi dos mil kilómetros.

El país consta de tres grandes regiones: dos costeras (Trípolitania y Cirenaica) y una interior desértica (Fezán). La región de Tripolitania presenta una orografía llana y una costa con pocos accidentes naturales.

Principales ciudades:

Trípoli (la capital), Bengasi, Misurata, Zwara, Zawia, Joms, Gadames, Sebha, Tobruk y Derna.

La región de Cirenaica contiene las zonas verdes más extensas del país, bosques mediterráneos y una costa con mayores ele­vaciones y refugios naturales.

La desértica región meridional del Fezán, presenta vegetación y paisaje típicamente saharianos. En ella se encuentran los campos petrolíferos de Murzuq. Sus principales núcleos urbanos son Sebha, Gat y Gadames.

Clima

Mediterráneo, con inviernos suaves y veranos calurosos en la zona costera. En las montañas situadas al oeste (Tripolitania) y este (Montaña Verde) el clima es más frío. Al sur de las mismas, el noventa por ciento del territorio, el clima es desértico.

Durante el verano la temperatura en la zona costera supera los 35° de media en las horas centrales del día, siendo más elevada en la zona meridional.

En invierno las mínimas están alrededor de 9º y las máximas de 18°. Ocasionalmente hace su aparición el guibli, viento tórrido y seco procedente del sur, cargado de arena que puede hacer que la temperatura se eleve por encima de los 40º. La localidad de Aziziyah, a unos sesenta kilómetros al sur de Trípoli es el lugar en el que se registró la temperatura más alta del planeta, con 57° (ocurrió a finales de los años cincuentas del siglo pasado).

Población

6,16 millones de habitantes (2007).  El 72% de la población es menor de treinta años.

Capital

Trípoli (Tarabulos) (1.149.957 hab.) (censo de 2003).

Idioma

Árabe (oficial).

Otros idiomas

Inglés e italiano.

Religión

La gran mayoría de la población es musulmana sunnita, con una minoría de musulmana abadí.
Además, vive en Libia una minoría cristiana, principalmente católica, (0,2%).

Bandera

Tricolor: rojo, negro (con media luna y estrella blancas en medio) y verde.

Moneda

Dinar libio = 1.000 dirhams.
1 Dinar equivale a: 1.67 €.  (aproximadamente).

Horario laboral

El viernes es día de descanso semanal.
Las oficinas públicas abren de 08.30 a 15.00 horas.
Los Bancos abren de sábado a jueves, en horario del público de 08.00 a 14.00.

Diferencia horaria

En Libia no se realiza ningún cambio de horario en función de las estaciones, lo que se traduce en que durante la temporada de primavera-verano se mantiene en el mismo huso horarial de España, mientras que cuando en otoño-invierno se retra­san los relojes en España una hora, en Libia es una hora más.

Fiestas nacionales:

  • 17 de Febrero: Aniversario de la Revolución (Día Nacional).
  • 1 de mayo: Día de los Trabajadores.
  • 16 de septiembre: Día del Mártir.
  • 23 de octubre: Día de la Liberación.
  • 24 de diciembre: Día de la Independencia.

Fiestas religiosas:

  • Id Al-Fitr (al término del mes de Ramadán) (3 días).
  • Id Al-Adha (o del Sacrificio) (3 días).
  • Al-Mawlid (Nacimiento del Profeta) (1 día)

Las fiestas religiosas están sujetas a variación, lo cual se fundamenta en la diferencia con respecto al mes gregoriano (el año lunar se adelanta cada año en 11 días con respecto al año gregoriano).

EL RÍO ARTIFICIAL

Rio Artificial LibiaEs una red de tuberías que provee agua desde los acuíferos fósiles del desierto de Libia a las regiones costeras del norte del país. Es considerado como uno de los más grandes proyectos de ingeniería realizados por el hombre.

Consiste en más de 1.300 pozos, la mayoría de los cuales de más de 500 metros de profundidad, y provee 6.500.000 m³ de agua dulce por día a las ciudades de Trípoli, Benghasi, entre otras. El costo total del proyecto está estimado en más de 25 mil millones de dólares.

sobrelibia2El acuífero de donde es originaria el agua es conocido como el sistema acuífero de piedra arenisca de Nubia, y sus orígenes se remontan a la última era de hielo, sin reposición actual. Contiene entre 10.000 y 12.000 Km³ de agua subterránea disponible.

Durante la búsqueda de petróleo en Libia, allá por los años cincuenta del siglo XX, los investigadores localizaron una importante área de agua subterránea que se divide en cuatro cuencas. La cuenca del Kufra con casi veinte mil kilómetros cúbicos de agua, la cuenca de Sirte con cerca de diez mil kilómetros cúbicos, la cuenca de Murzug con cuatro mil ochocientos kilómetros cúbicos y la cuenca de Al Hamada con cerca cuatro mil kilómetros cúbicos de agua. Según estimaciones, la suma de todos estos recursos proporcionaría agua al país durante cuatro mil ochocientos años.

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sobrelibia4Los organismos libios estuvieron calculando cuál sería la manera más económica para conseguir agua, y descubrieron que extraer agua de su subsuelo y transportarla a la costa, que es dónde se asienta la población, era mucho más rentable que desalar o importar agua del sur de Europa.

En 1983 comienza el desarrollo del proyecto del Río Artificial. Una infraestructura de dimensiones colosales que aún no ha terminado. En las primeras fases se han construido cerca de cuatro mil quinientos kilómetros de tuberías, con cilindros que suelen llegar a los cuatro metros de diámetro por siete de largo. Para el transporte en camiones de cada uno de los segmentos, se ha construido una carretera con ese único uso. El total de cemento empleado alcanza los setenta millones de toneladas. Toda la red de tuberías está controlada por un sistema de cableado que permite conocer cualquier fuga de agua. El sistema está pensado para abastecer a cerca de ciento treinta mil hectáreas de tierras cultivables con los seis millones de metros cúbicos que pueden extraer al día. De hecho, ya se cultiva trigo, vid y olivo.

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